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Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease, with inappropriately elevated blood glucose levels. About 537 million adults across the world have diabetes. Too much glucose circulating in your bloodstream causes diabetes, regardless of the type.



  1. Type 2 diabetes: With this type, your body doesn’t make enough insulin, and your body’s cells don’t respond normally to the insulin.
  2. Prediabetes: This type is the stage before Type 2 diabetes. Your blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough to be officially diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes.
  3. Type 1 diabetes: This type is an autoimmune disease in which your immune system attacks and destroys insulin-producing cells in your pancreas for unknown reasons.
  4. Gestational diabetes: This type develops in some people during pregnancy.



  • Increased thirst and dry mouth.
  • Frequent urination
  • Fatigue.
  • Blurred vision
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Numbness or tingling in your hands or feet.
  • Slow-healing sores or cuts.
  • Frequent skin infections.



Insulin resistance Several factors and cause insulin resistance, including obesity, lack of physical activity, diet, hormonal imbalances, genetics, and certain medications.

  • Autoimmune disease
  • Hormonal imbalances
  • Pancreatic damage
  • Genetic mutations



  • Coronary artery disease
  • Stroke
  • Atherosclerosis
  • Nerve damage, which can cause numbness, tingling, and/or pain.
  • Nephropathy
  • Retinopathy, which can lead to blindness.
  • Skin infections.
  • Sexual dysfunction
  • Hearing loss
  • Oral health issues


  • Fasting blood glucose test For this test, you don’t eat or drink anything except water for at least eight hours before the test.
  • Random blood glucose test
  • HbA1C provides your average blood glucose level over the past two to three months.
  • Oral glucose tolerance test- for gestational diabetes



  • Blood sugar monitoring
  • Diet: Meal planning and choosing a healthy diet
  • Exercise
  • maintain a healthy Weight
  • Stress management
  • Limit alcohol intake.
  • Get adequate sleep
  • Quit smoking