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Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)

GERD occurs when stomach acid repeatedly flows back into the oesophagus.



  • A burning sensation in your chest (heartburn), usually after eating, which might be worse at night or while lying down
  • regurgitation of food or sour liquid
  • Upper abdominal or chest pain
  • dysphagia
  • The sensation of a lump in your throat
  • An ongoing cough
  • Inflammation of the vocal cords (laryngitis)
  • New or worsening asthma



  • GERD is caused by frequent acid reflux or reflux of nonacidic content from the stomach.
  • When you swallow, the lower oesophageal sphincter relaxes to allow food and liquid to flow into your stomach. Then the sphincter closes again. If the sphincter does not relax as it should or it weakens, stomach acid can flow back into your oesophagus. This acid irritates the lining of your oesophagus, often causing it to become inflamed.



  • Obesity
  • Bulging of the top of the stomach up above the diaphragm (hiatal hernia)
  • Pregnancy
  • Connective tissue disorders, such as scleroderma
  • Delayed stomach emptying
  • Smoking
  • Eating large meals or eating late at night
  • Eating certain foods (triggers) such as fatty or fried foods
  • Drinking certain beverages, such as alcohol or coffee
  • Taking certain medications