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Cholelithiasis or gallstones are hardened deposits or collections of bile material that develop in your gallbladder.


As much as 75% of gallstones are made up of excess cholesterol.

  • Obesity
  • Diabetes

About 25% of gallstones are made up of excess bilirubin

  • Gallbladder stasis


The most typical symptom is a type of abdominal pain. It occurs in episodes that last for one to several hours, usually after a large or rich meal. Pain most often occurs in the upper right side of your abdomen, under your ribcage, where your gallbladder is located. The pain can also radiate somewhere else, most often to your right arm or shoulder blade. Biliary colic is often accompanied by nausea and vomiting.

 If you have occasional episodes of biliary colic, it means that a gallstone is causing a partial blockage.


Since there’s no way to access the gallstones inside your gallbladder without removing them, the standard treatment for problematic gallstones is to remove the gallbladder entirely.



There are some medications that can help to dissolve smaller gallstones. These take many months to work. But they offer an alternative for people who may not be in a safe health condition for surgery. They may also be practical for people who have gallstones but don’t have symptoms yet.


  • Limit fried and fast foods.
  • Replace red meat with fish.
  • Eat high-fiber, fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.
  • Lose weight gradually.